Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
School Food Purchase Study: Final Report

This study provides national estimates of the food acquisitions of public unified school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP). It describes the type, quantity, and value of foods purchased by public school districts and the relative importance of foods donated to these school districts by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The study also examines procurement practices and operating characteristics of these school districts and the relationship of these characteristics to food costs. Data were collected form a nationally representative sample of 324 unified public school districts during School Year 1996/97. Findings are compared to the results of a similar study conducted in SY 1984/85.

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education and Promotion
WIC Nutrition Education Assessment Study

The WIC Nutrition Education Assessment Study was conducted by Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, under contract with the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The study was designed by FNS to fill several important gaps in information about the nutrition education component of the WIC Program.

It was not designed to be a "best practices" study, nor was it meant to provide a nationally representative picture of nutrition education in the WIC Program. Rather, the study was exploratory in nature and examined processes and outcomes in six local WIC agencies that serve different populations and use a variety of different approaches to providing nutrition education. Findings from the study are intended to provide a focus for future research in this area. The study is unique in that it used a longitudinal design, i.e., repeated measures from the same group of WIC participants over a period of time. In addition, the study employed a mixed-method approach to data collection that allowed for collection of comparable data from different sources.

This feature provides broad coverage of important issues from different perspectives. Six local WIC agencies participated in the study which focused on pregnant and postpartum WIC participants. A separate report describes the nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of study subjects at the time they enrolled in WIC (Fox, M.K., et al., 1998). This report describes the nutrition education services offered in study sites, participants' receipt of and satisfaction with these services, and changes in participants' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between the time of prenatal WIC certification and four-to-six-months postpartum.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
Food Stamp EBT Systems and Program- Eligible vs. Non-Eligible Food Items: Report to Congress

This report explores the feasibility and potential cost of enabling EBT systems to differentiate between program-eligible and ineligible items. It considers the cost of upgrading systems in stores that now have scanners and the cost of installing new systems in stores without scanners. The report also examines the potential for the purchase of ineligible items even with the introduction of new technological controls.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: How Effective is the Food Stamp Program?

This pamphlet provides estimates for Food Stamp Program participation rates by States. It will be the first widely-released document showing the percentage of eligible people, by State, who actually participate in the program. Because the data are from January 1994, prior to the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, they provide baseline data on participation rates prior to the enactment of welfare reform.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Evaluation of the Nutrient Standard Menu Planning Demonstration

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) are administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NSLP operates in over 94,000 schools and institutions. More than 26 million children receive meals through the program on any given day; about half of these meals are provided free of charge. The SBP operates in approximately two-thirds of the schools and institutions that offer the NSLP, most commonly in schools that serve large numbers of economically disadvantaged children. On an average day, roughly seven million children receive breakfast through the SBP. The vast majority of these meals are provided free of charge. School Food Authorities (SFAs) participating in the NSLP and SBP receive two types of federal assistance: donated surplus commodities and cash reimbursements.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Eating Breakfast: Effects of the School Breakfast Program

The analysis conducted in this study builds on these two strands of the literature and uses three alternate definitions of breakfast: Consumption of any food or beverage. Breakfast intake of food energy greater than 10 percent of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Consumption of foods from at least two of five main food groups and intake of food energy greater than 10 percent of the RDA. As the definition of breakfast becomes more robust, the percentage of students who eat breakfast declines. Almost 9 of 10 students consumed any food or beverage, but only 6 of 10 students consumed food from at least two of the main food groups and had breakfast intake of food energy greater than 10 percent of the RDA.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Technical and Cost Feasibility of EBT Equipage in Farmers’ Markets and Mobile Food Retailers

Describe how participants redeem their food stamp (FS) benefits (including the number and types of stores frequented by typical clients, the timing and amount of purchases during the month, the frequency of benefit exhaustion, and the amount of benefits carried over into following months). And, identify redemption patterns across groups and analyze differences in redemption and shopping patterns if such exist (e.g., differences between participants with earnings and those without; differences between families with and without children; differences between geographic regions).

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Study of WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 1996

The 1996 study of WIC program and participant characteristics (PC96), like PC92 and PC94, is substantially different from earlier efforts to collect data on WIC participants. PC96 employs the prototype reporting system which was developed by FNS for the collection of participant information from State WIC agencies.

Resource | Research | Policy Analysis
The Effect of Welfare Reform on Able-Bodied Food Stamp Recipients

This report is the first to present information on a little-known segment of the Food Stamp population that has been profoundly affected by welfare reform—unemployed, childless, 18-50 year old able-bodied adults. As government agencies find themselves having to learn quickly about those affected by the new rules of public assistance , the need to gather timely and accurate information has never been greater.

Resource | Research | Policy Analysis
State Food Stamp Policy Choices Under Welfare Reform: Findings of 1997 50-State Survey

The report presents the results of a survey conducted with every State during November and December 1997 to gather detailed information on State options taken in six main areas, with particular focus on time limits and work requirements for able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs) and on food stamp sanctions.