Resource | Research | Food Security
Household Food Security in the United States, 1995-1997: Technical Issues and Statistical Report

This is the Final Report for the project, "Analysis of the Current Population Survey Data for Food Security and Hunger Measurement" conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) for the USDA Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), beginning in 1997. The project provided USDA with technical support and statistical estimation work for analyzing the 1996 and 1997 data on food security collected in the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS) Food Security Supplement. More broadly, the work examined a number of analytic and empirical issues relevant to analyzing the first three years of CPS food security data available—those for 1995, 1996, and 1997.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
Characteristics of Food Stamp Household Fiscal Year 2000

The Food Stamp Program (FSP) provides millions of Americans with the means to purchase food for a nutritious diet. The FSP is the largest of the 15 domestic food and nutrition assistance programs administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). In an average month in fiscal year 2000, the FSP served approximately 17.2 million people. This report presents the characteristics of food stamp households nationwide in fiscal year 2000 (October 1999 to September 2000). This information on household characteristics comes from FSP household data for fiscal year 2000 collected by FNS for quality control purposes. Annual quality control data used to produce this report can be found using the link below.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
National Survey of WIC Participants

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). WIC was established in 1972 to counteract the negative effects of poverty and poor nutrition on prenatal and pediatric health. WIC provides a combination of direct nutritional supplementation, nutrition education and counseling, and increased access to health care and social service providers for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women; infants; and children up to age five. Since 1992, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics based on the WIC Minimum Data Set (MDS) compiled from state management information systems. The 20 items included in the MDS are collected as part of ongoing WIC operations and consist primarily of in formation related to participant eligibility. This report presents findings from the National Survey of WIC Participants and Their Local Agencies (NSWP). The NSWP was fielded in spring of 1998 and collected information about WIC participants and their families, through interviews conducted in WIC service sites throughout the country. The NSWP was the first national survey of WIC enrollees since 1988. Over that ten-year period, the WIC program vastly expanded, with the number of enrollees growing from approximately 3.4 million in 1988 to over 8 million in 1998.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Framework for Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program

This is a report of the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (Food and Nutrition Board), published here by permission.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Trends in the FSP Participation Rates: Focus on 1994 to 1999

This report examines trends in FSP participation rates since 1994. It focuses on trends in the rates before and after welfare reform, and throughout much of the economic expansion of the 1990s. It also examines trends in participation rates among subgroups of the eligible population such as those with and without earnings, with and without children, and with and without welfare. It also looks at participation rates of aliens and able-bodied adults without children.

Resource | Research | Policy Analysis
Imposing a Time Limit on Food Stamp Receipt: Implementation of the Provisions and Effects on Food Stamp Program Participation

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 imposed a work requirement and time limit on food stamp recipients viewed as fit to work – able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs). ABAWD participants are limited to three months of benefits in a three-year period unless they meet a work requirement. This study provides a national picture of how states implemented the ABAWD provisions and who was affected.

Resource | Research | Food Security
The Decline in Food Stamp Participation: A Report to Congress

Over the last decade, food stamp participation rose more sharply than expected following the relatively short and mild recession in the early 1990s and fell more sharply than expected after 1994 during the sustained period of economic growth. Report language accompanying the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2001 directed the Food and Nutrition Service to study the decline in participation in the Food Stamp Program.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
The Prevalence of Overweight Among WIC Children

This study examines the trends in the prevalence of overweight among WIC children during the 1990s. The study is based on data collected by the biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Studies (1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998). Overweight prevalence among WIC children is measured according to the revised growth charts, released by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in May 2000.WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. This Federal program is administered by USDA and provides supplemental foods, nutrition education, and health care referrals to pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are income eligible and at nutritional risk. WIC regulations require anthropometric measurements (height or length, and weight) be taken and recorded as part of determining nutritional risk for all enrollees, and these data are regularly reported in the biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Studies.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study - II

This report summarizes findings of the second School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-II). The study provides up-to-date information on the nutritional quality of meals served in public schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). The last nationally representative study of the NSLP and SBP, SNDA-I, was completed in school year (SY) 1991-92. SNDA-I confirmed that school meals met a variety of important nutrition goals. However, the study also found that school lunches were not consistent with Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations for total fat and saturated fat intake. At the time, school food service programs were not required to offer meals that were consistent with the Dietary Guidelines.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
WIC Vendor Management Study, 1998

The purpose of the study was to learn the extent to which retail grocers, defined as "vendors" in the WIC Program, authorized to provide food to WIC participants, were violating program rules and procedures, and to determine which programmatic and/or demographic variables could be associated with vendor violations.