Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program For Women Infants, and Children (WIC) Eligibles and Coverage-2000 to 2009: National and State-Level Estimates of the Population of Women, Infants and Children Eligibles for WIC Benefits

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and referrals to health care and social services to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that met these criteria and was eligible for WIC benefits in each of the years 2000 through 2009. This report includes some new estimates not included in previous reports: (1) estimates of the number of eligibles and coverage rates by State; (2) updated estimates in U.S. territories; (3) confidence intervals; and (4) estimates of eligible children by single year of age.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2009

This report – the latest in an annual series – presents estimates of the percentage of eligible persons, by State, who participated in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) during an average month in fiscal year 2009 and in the 2 previous fiscal years. This report also presents estimates of State participation rates for eligible “working poor” individuals (persons in households with earnings) over the same period. Although SNAP provides an important support for working families, the working poor have participated at rates that are substantially below those for all eligible persons. The addition

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2010

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics (PC2010) summarizes the demographic characteristics of participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nationwide in April 2010. It includes information on participant income and nutrition risk characteristics, estimates breastfeeding initiation rates for WIC infants, and describes WIC members of migrant farm-worker families. PC2010 is the most recent in a series of reports that have been generated from WIC State management information systems biennially since 1992. It is the first in the series since the major changes in the WIC food packages in 2009.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
Direct Certification in the National School Lunch Program State Implementation Progress, School Year 2010-2011 Report to Congress

This report responds to the requirement of Public Law 110-246 to assess the effectiveness of State and local efforts to directly certify children for free school meals. Under direct certification, children are determined eligible for free school meals without the need for household applications by using data from other means-tested programs. The 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act required local educational agencies (LEAs) to establish systems to directly certify children from households that receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits by School Year (SY) 2008-2009. In SY 2010-2011, 85 percent of LEAs directly certified some children from SNAP-recipient households. These LEAs enroll 97 percent of all students in NSLP schools. States and LEAs directly certified 1.9 million more children at the start of SY 2010-2011 than they did a year earlier. The share of SNAP participant children directly certified for free school meals increased to an estimated 78 percent in SY 2010-2011, up from 72 percent in SY 2009-2010.

Resource | Research | Study & Evaluation Plan
Study and Evaluation Plan (2011)

The Food and Nutrition Service conducts a variety of studies, evaluations, and related activities that respond to the needs of policy makers and managers and help ensure that nutrition assistance programs achieve their goals effectively. These plans provide short descriptions of projects that have been or will be funded in each fiscal year.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Evaluation of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program: Interim Report

The Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among students in the Nation’s poorest elementary schools by providing free fresh fruits and vegetables to students outside of regular school meals. FFVP began as a pilot program in 2002 and was converted into a nationwide program in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, also known as the Farm Bill (PL 110-234). The results presented in this interim report, for the 2010-2011 school year, focus on the total quantity of fruits and vegetables consumed and total energy intake (also referred to as total caloric intake), allowing the assessment of whether any additional fruit and vegetable consumption was in addition to or in place of other foods consumed.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Dynamics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation in the Mid-2000s

This report describes individuals’ patterns of participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) from 2004 to 2006, a period of caseload growth and improving economic conditions. Based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the study explores reasons that individuals enter and leave SNAP, how long they receive SNAP benefits, and whether they return to the program after exiting. The report also examines whether participation patterns in the mid-2000s changed from earlier periods. This report is a companion to Determinants of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Entry and Exit in the Mid-2000s.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Determinants of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Entry and Exit in the Mid-2000s

This study analyzes which factors are associated with individuals’ decisions to start participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and with decisions to leave the program during the period 2004 to 2006. Based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the study uses a technique called “multivariate regression” to isolate the impact of various factors associated with participation decisions while holding other factors constant. The factors examined in this report include individual demographic and economic variables, as well as State economic conditions and policies. This report is a companion to Dynamics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation in the Mid-2000s.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2010

This report describes the characteristics of SNAP households and participants nationwide in fiscal year 2010 (October 2009 through September 2010). It also presents an overview of SNAP eligibility requirements and benefit levels in fiscal year 2010. Annual quality control data used to produce this report can be found using the link below.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Early Implementation of Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer for Children

Summer Electronic Benefits Transfer For Children:Early Experiences through June 2011 of the Proof-of-Concept Year Contract #: AG-3198-C-11-0002