Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study

This study is the first nationally representative, comprehensive assessment of the school meal programs since the updated nutrition standards for school meals were phased in beginning School Year 2012-2013. A study methodology report that describes the study design, sampling and data collection and a Summary Report that provides a brief overview of the study and key findings from the various reports are also available.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Assessment of States' Use of Computer Matching Protocols in SNAP

As required by federal law, state SNAP agencies verify financial and non-financial information by matching SNAP applicant and participant information to various national and state data sources to ensure they meet the program’s eligibility criteria. Data matching is an important tool for ensuring program integrity and benefit accuracy. However,  information on states’ data matching practices and protocols is limited. This study was undertaken to address this knowledge gap.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
WIC Vendor Peer Group Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of state agencies current peer group systems, and to provide guidance to state agencies on how to evaluate and update their systems. Specifically, it uses empirical analysis to identify one or more effective models for establishing vendor peer groups that could apply to most state agencies.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
WIC Erroneous Payments to Vendors: Annual Estimates for FY 2011

This report provides improper payment estimates for fiscal year 2011 using a methodology for “aging” the 2005 bookend study. The methodology yields nationally representative estimates of the number of vendors that over- and undercharged and the amount of over- and undercharges across all WIC vendors.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
WIC Erroneous Payments to Vendors: Annual Estimates for FY 2010

This report provides improper payment estimates for FY 2010 using a methodology for “aging” the 2005 bookend study. The methodology yields nationally representative estimates of the number of vendors that over- and undercharged and the amount of over- and undercharges across all WIC vendors.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
WIC Erroneous Payments to Vendors: Annual Estimates for 2009

This report provides improper payments estimates for FY 2009 using a methodology for “aging” the 2005 bookend study. This updates previous reports providing estimates from 2005 to 2008.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
2005 WIC Vendor Management Study

 In 1991 and 1998, FNS conducted national studies of WIC vendors to determine the extent of vendor violation of program rules. After the 1998 study, FNS issued regulations to correct vendor practices. The 2005 study replicates the 1998 study to determine whether the regulations were effective, and to measure the frequency of vendor violations and the degree to which vendors charge accurate prices for WIC transactions.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
A Comparison of WIC Vendor Management Practices in 1991 and 1998

The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) published “The WIC Vendor Management Study, 1998” in July 2001 which examined, in part, the extent to which retail grocers, defined as “vendors” in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), were violating program rules and regulations. The 1998 study is a follow-up to the “WIC Vendor Issues Study, 1991” published by FNS in May 1993. From an operational and management perspective, it is important for FNS to know if there have been any changes in vendor management practices from 1991 to 1998. However, as there were differences in the way the data were collected, analyzed, and reported, the findings presented in the two published reports cannot be directly compared. This report presents a re-analysis of the data from the 1991 and 1998 studies, which allows comparisons of the findings.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
WIC Vendor Management Study, 1998

The purpose of the study was to learn the extent to which retail grocers, defined as "vendors" in the WIC Program, authorized to provide food to WIC participants, were violating program rules and procedures, and to determine which programmatic and/or demographic variables could be associated with vendor violations.