Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
The Extent of Trafficking in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: 2012–2014

Trafficking of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits occurs when SNAP recipients sell their benefits for cash to food retailers, often at a discount. Although trafficking does not increase costs to the Federal Government, it is a diversion of program benefits from their intended purpose of helping low-income families access a nutritious diet. This report, the latest in a series of periodic analyses, provides estimates of the extent of trafficking during the period 2012 through 2014.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP): Assessment of Sponsor Tiering Determinations - 2015

This report provides the 2015 national estimate of incorrect payments for the meal reimbursements. The assessment calculates both overpayments and underpayments for FDCHs that earn either Tier 1 (higher) or Tier II (lower) reimbursements depending on the location and circumstances of the child care provider or the participating children.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
WIC Vendor Peer Group Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of State Agencies current peer group systems, and to provide guidance to State Agencies on how to evaluate and update their systems. Specifically, it uses empirical analysis to identify one or more effective models for establishing vendor peer groups that could apply to most State Agencies.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
The Second Access, Participation, Eligibility, and Certification Study (APEC II): Estimating and Validating Statistical Models for Updating Estimates of Improper Payments in the NSLP and SBP

Statistical models were designed to estimate national improper payments due to certification error on an annual basis using district-level data. This enables FNS to update its estimates of national improper payment rates for the NSLP and SBP in future years without having to conduct full rounds of primary data collection.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Approaches to Measuring Erroneous Payments in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program At The State Level

The second Access, Participation, Eligibility and Certification Study (APEC II) included a follow-on report that provided statistically-derived State-level estimates of school meals erroneous payments. However, while APEC II provided a rough indicator of relative risk for groups of States (e.g., higher than average, about average, lower than average), it was not a State-representative direct measure, and creating actual annual measures of such erroneous payments at the State level using APEC methodology is cost-prohibitive. This report explores alternative approaches to developing measurement-based State-specific estimates that are responsive to year-to-year changes in the actual underlying rate in each State. It also provides cost and burden estimates for the implementation of each of these methods.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Regional Office Review of Applications (RORA) for School Meals 2015

This is the 11th in a series of annual reports that examines the administrative accuracy of eligibility determinations and benefit issuance for free or reduced-price meals in the National School Lunch Program.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Enhancing Completion Rates for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Quality Control Reviews

National completion rates for SNAP QC reviews have generally declined since peak levels in the 1980s, and State-level completion rates vary widely. This study examines the factors contributing to incomplete reviews of cases and describes best practices associated with high SNAP QC completion rates.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP): Assessment of Sponsor Tiering Determinations - 2014

The 2014 Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP): Assessment of Sponsor Tiering Determinations examines the accuracy of the classification of family day care homes (FDCHs) participating in the CACFP. In response to the Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Act (IPERA) of 2010, the assessment provides estimates of the number of FDCHs in 2014 that were misclassified by sponsoring agencies into the wrong tier, and the resulting erroneous payments for meals and snacks reimbursed at the wrong rate.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Regional Office Review of Applications (RORA) for School Meals 2014

This is the tenth in a series of annual reports to examine administrative errors incurred during the local educational agency’s (LEA) approval process of household applications for free and reduced-price meals in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). This report examines administrative error estimates in student certification for free and reduced-price NSLP meals.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Program Error in the NSLP and SBP: Findings from the Second Access, Participation, Eligibility and Certification Study (APEC II)

FNS developed the Access, Participation, Eligibility and Certification (APEC) study series, which collects and analyzes data from a nationally representative sample of schools and school food authorities (SFAs) about every 5 years. APEC allows FNS to develop a national estimate of erroneous payment rates and amounts in three key areas: certification error, meal claiming error and aggregation error.  FNS recently completed APEC II, which collected data in School Year 2012-2013 and this report summarizes those findings.