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Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2002

The WIC Participant and Program Characteristics (PC2004) report summarizes demographic characteristics of WIC participants nationwide in April 2004, along with information on participant income and nutrition risk characteristics. A national estimate of breastfeeding initiation for WIC infants is included. The report also describes WIC members of migrant farm-worker families.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity

A Comparison of WIC Vendor Management Practices in 1991 and 1998

The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) published “The WIC Vendor Management Study, 1998” in July 2001 which examined, in part, the extent to which retail grocers, defined as “vendors” in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), were violating program rules and regulations. The 1998 study is a follow-up to the “WIC Vendor Issues Study, 1991” published by FNS in May 1993. From an operational and management perspective, it is important for FNS to know if there have been any changes in vendor management practices from 1991 to 1998. However, as there were differences in the way the data were collected, analyzed, and reported, the findings presented in the two published reports cannot be directly compared. This report presents a re-analysis of the data from the 1991 and 1998 studies, which allows comparisons of the findings.

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education

Environmental Scan and Audience Analysis for Phase II of Eat Smart. Play Hard.

The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) launched the Eat Smart. Play Hard. campaign to promote the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) healthy eating and physical activity messages to children ages 2–18 and their caregivers. This campaign is an FNS agency-wide initiative and represents the latest effort by FNS to meet its strategic goal of improving the nutrition of children and low-income adults while at the same time addressing the major public health issue of the increasing prevalence of obesity among our Nation’s youth. The FNS nutrition assistance programs have a potential reach of more than 48.2 million children. Delivery of the Eat Smart. Play Hard. messages across these programs has the potential to impact eating and physical activity behaviors in a positive way.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity

Survey of the Public Health Nutrition Workforce 1999-2000

The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the states and territories. ASTPHND has conducted periodic profiles of the public health nutrition workforce since 1985. Members of ASTPHND in their respective states and territories conducted the census reported in this paper during 1999-2000. Prior to this, ASTPHND's last survey was conducted in 1994.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

The Characteristics of Native American WIC Participants, On and Off Reservations

This report describes Native American participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) based on data collected by the biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Studies in 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998. The report presents information on the geographic distribution, demographic characteristics, health status, and public health concerns of low-income Native American women, infants, and children participating in the WIC Program on and off reservations; describes Native American Tribes and the role of tribal governments in administering WIC programs; compares the characteristics of Native American WIC enrollees with all WIC enrollees; and examines the health status of Native American WIC enrollees.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2000

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The WIC Program provides a combination of direct nutritional supplementation, nutrition education and counseling, and increased access to health care and social service providers for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women; infants; and children up to the age of five years. WIC seeks to improve fetal development and reduce the incidence of low birthweight, short gestation, and anemia through intervention during the prenatal period. This publication is the seventh report in the series of studies on WIC participants and program characteristics.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis

Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program

This is a report of the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (Food and Nutrition Board), published here by permission. This report seeks to evaluate the use of various dietary assessment tools and to make recommendations for their use in identifying individuals who are at dietary risk.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

Adolescent WIC Participants Study

The Adolescent WIC Participants Study was a national survey of adolescent women enrolled in the WIC program and WIC clinic directors. Approximately 15 percent of the women served by the WIC program are adolescents. This study was designed to describe the characteristics of adolescent women in WIC, as well as to identify their special needs, such as nutrition education, referral to other agencies, and their satisfaction with the services they received. The Adolescent WIC Participants Study was the first national survey of pregnant teenagers and mothers served by the WIC program. Following a series of 24 focus groups with WIC adolescents and program staff to clarify the study issues, the study team conducted a multi-stage survey of 297 WIC clinic directors and 2,649 adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age, who visited WIC clinics during a 60-day period in the first half of 1997.

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education

Nutrition Education in FNS: A Coordinated Approach for Promoting Healthy Behaviors

This report fulfills the request from Congress in the House Appropriations Committee Report (House Report 107-116), which accompanied the Agriculture Appropriations Act for fiscal year 2002. The conference report included the following statement: “The nutritional status of our young people is a matter of public health. The Committee expects the Department to build upon work already done with the food pyramid, and other innovative national and local efforts. Nutrition information should be carefully reviewed so that a consistent and coordinated message is disseminated. Existing opportunities to convey nutrition messages, including newsletters, static displays in cafeterias, in-school and cable television productions should be used to the maximum extent possible. The committee directs the Department to provide a report regarding the development and implementation of this effort by February 1, 2002."

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education

Promoting Healthy Eating: An Investment In the Future

This report fulfills a Congressional request for the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) to report on "a comprehensive, integrated approach to nutrition education as a complement to the various nutrition assistance programs." FNS reviewed its current nutrition education efforts, and consulted with a wide range of nutrition education experts and stakeholders.