Resource | History
A Short History of SNAP

1939 – The First Food Stamp Program

Resource | Research, Analysis & Background | Assessing/Improving Operations
Analysis of SNAP-Ed Data for All States

SNAP Education (SNAP-Ed) is the nutrition education and obesity prevention component of SNAP; its goal is to improve the likelihood that persons eligible for SNAP will make nutritious food choices within a limited budget and choose physically active lifestyles consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the USDA food guidance.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Trends in SNAP Participation Rates: FY 2010-2016

This report presents estimates of participation rates for fiscal year (FY) 2016, comparing them to estimates of participation rates for FYs 2010 through 2015.

Resource | Research | General/Other
Evaluation of Pilot Project for Procurement of Unprocessed Fruits and Vegetables

Authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill, the USDA Pilot Project for Procurement of Unprocessed Fruits and Vegetables was designed to provide states with additional flexibility in the procurement of unprocessed fruits and vegetables. Participating states and school food authorities can purchase approved items with existing USDA Foods National School Lunch Program entitlement funds from any USDA Pilot-authorized vendor in support of the school meal standards.

Resource | Research | Food Security
Evaluation of Demonstration Projects to End Childhood Hunger (EDECH): Final Interim Evaluation Report

This study—authorized by the 2010 Child Nutrition Act—tests innovative strategies to end childhood hunger and food insecurity. 

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: Estimates of State SNAP Participation Rates in 2015

This report – part of an annual series – presents estimates of the percentage of eligible persons, by state, who participated in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) during an average month in fiscal year (FY) 2015 and in the two previous fiscal years. This report also presents estimates of state participation rates for eligible “working poor” individuals (persons in households with earnings) over the same period.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
NSLP/SBP Access, Participation, Eligibility, and Certification Study – Erroneous Payments in the NSLP and SBP

Program errors and the risk of erroneous payments in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) continue to be a concern. Slightly more than one in five students were certified inaccurately or erroneously denied benefits in school year (SY) 2005-06. New data estimates the gross cost of school meals erroneous payments due to certification error at about $935 million while other operational errors represent about $860 million. Most of the payment errors resulted from (1) household misreporting of income, (2) administrative errors by school districts in processing applications, and (3) errors by cashiers in counting reimbursable meals. The U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA) will use this new information to continue the extensive work underway, and step up its commitment to work with Congress and program partners to address these erroneous payments. Actions to reduce these errors must improve accuracy without compromising access for low-income families, must not unduly increase burden on schools, and must be cost-effective.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Dynamics of Food Stamp Program Participation, 2001-2003

This report provides a comprehensive picture of individuals’ patterns of participation in the Food Stamp Program (FSP) during 2001-2003, a period of steady caseload growth. Based on data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the research explores reasons that individuals enter and leave the FSP, how long they stay on the program, whether they return to the program after exiting, and what factors distinguish those who make greater use of the FSP than others. The research also examines whether participation patterns in 2001-2003 changed from patterns in the 1990s.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: State Food Stamp Participation Rates in 2005

This report – the latest in an annual series – presents estimates of the percentage of eligible persons, by state, who participated in the Food Stamp Program (FSP) in an average month in fiscal year 2005 and in the 2 previous fiscal years. This report also presents estimates of state participation rates for eligible “working poor” individuals (persons in households with earnings) over the same period. Although the FSP provides an important support for working families, the working poor have participated at rates that are substantially below those for all eligible persons. The addition of state-by-state information on participation among the working poor enables a comparison of these rates to the overall participation rates. Nationally, the participation rate among all eligible persons was 65 percent in fiscal year 2005. The participation rate for eligible working poor individuals was 57 percent, a significant difference of 8 percentage points.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: FY 2006

On average, about 26.7 million people living in 11.7 million households received food stamps in the United States each month in fiscal year 2006. Food stamp households are a diverse group. Because food stamp benefits are available to most low-income households with few resources, regardless of age, disability status, or family structure, recipients represent a broad cross-section of the Nation's poor. This report provides information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households in fiscal year 2006. The report draws on data for households participating in the Food Stamp Program under normal rules and thus does not include information about those who received disaster assistance after the Gulf Coast hurricanes in September and October 2005.