Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study

This study is the first nationally representative, comprehensive assessment of the school meal programs since the updated nutrition standards for school meals were phased in beginning School Year 2012-2013. A study methodology report that describes the study design, sampling and data collection and a Summary Report that provides a brief overview of the study and key findings from the various reports are also available.

Resource | Research
Analyses of Electronic Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System (eFORS)

The purpose of the descriptive retrospective study discussed in this article was to analyze data collected within the Electronic Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System (eFORS) in school settings in order to examine the magnitude of foodborne disease etiologies and to recommend strategies for prevention.

Resource | Research
Analyses of the Contributing Factors Associated With Foodborne Outbreaks in School Settings (2000–2010)

The purpose of the authors’ study was to examine the role of contributing factors in school foodborne outbreaks. Contamination factors accounted for the greatest proportion (49.2%) of outbreaks involving some level of food handling interaction by a school food service worker, followed by proliferation (34.9%) and survival factors (15.9%). Over 56% of all illnesses were associated with norovirus and food service worker practices.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Assessment of States' Use of Computer Matching Protocols in SNAP

As required by federal law, state SNAP agencies verify financial and non-financial information by matching SNAP applicant and participant information to various national and state data sources to ensure they meet the program’s eligibility criteria. Data matching is an important tool for ensuring program integrity and benefit accuracy. However,  information on states’ data matching practices and protocols is limited. This study was undertaken to address this knowledge gap.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Diet Quality of Young American Children by WIC Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008

This report uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrient intakes, food choices, and diet quality of young children who are WIC participants, income-eligible nonparticipants, and higher income participants.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
WIC Dynamics Study

WIC Dynamics is a study of the impact of participation growth associated with infant formula rebates, new regulatory and legislative requirements, economic factors occurred since 1988.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
WIC Eligibles and Coverage - 1994 to 2007; Estimates of the Population of Women, Infants, and Children Eligible for WIC Benefits

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food,nutrition education, breastfeed ing support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that met these criteria and was eligible for WIC benefits in each of the years 1994 through 2007.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations
WIC Evaluation Resource Guide

This publication is a practical guide for WIC administrators to design and implement program evaluations.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change

This is a report of the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (Food and Nutrition Board), published here by permission. It is also available on the Institute of Medicine website. In response to many concerns about the WIC food packages, the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a review of the WIC food packages.

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education
WIC Nutrition Education Assessment Study

The WIC Nutrition Education Assessment Study was conducted by Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, under contract with the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The study was designed by FNS to fill several important gaps in information about the nutrition education component of the WIC Program.

It was not designed to be a "best practices" study, nor was it meant to provide a nationally representative picture of nutrition education in the WIC Program. Rather, the study was exploratory in nature and examined processes and outcomes in six local WIC agencies that serve different populations and use a variety of different approaches to providing nutrition education. Findings from the study are intended to provide a focus for future research in this area. The study is unique in that it used a longitudinal design, i.e., repeated measures from the same group of WIC participants over a period of time. In addition, the study employed a mixed-method approach to data collection that allowed for collection of comparable data from different sources.

This feature provides broad coverage of important issues from different perspectives. Six local WIC agencies participated in the study which focused on pregnant and postpartum WIC participants. A separate report describes the nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of study subjects at the time they enrolled in WIC (Fox, M.K., et al., 1998). This report describes the nutrition education services offered in study sites, participants' receipt of and satisfaction with these services, and changes in participants' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between the time of prenatal WIC certification and four-to-six-months postpartum.