Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
Dynamics and Determinants of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation from 2008 to 2012

These reports describe individuals’ patterns of SNAP participation and analyze which factors were associated with their decisions to enter or exit the program. Both studies use data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation covering the period from 2008 to 2012.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pilot Projects in Increasing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participation among Medicare's Extra Help Population

This study reports on a project launched in 2010 to pilot and evaluate innovative strategies to reduce SNAP participation barriers for low-income elderly by leveraging new data-sharing requirements related to Medicare assistance programs that help pay for prescription drugs or Medicare premiums. SNAP accesses the medical assistance program data and contacts those individuals that appear SNAP eligible. Grants were awarded to New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Washington.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2013

This annual report provides details on the demographic characteristics and economic circumstances of SNAP households at both the national and State level. In 2013, most participants were children or elderly - 44 percent of participants were under age 18 and 9 percent were age 60 or older. The average SNAP household benefit declined by $3 to $271. The most common form of income was from earnings; 31 percent of SNAP households had income from work. Annual quality control data used to produce this report can be found using the link below.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Understanding the Rates, Causes, and Costs of Churning in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

“Churning” in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is defined as when a household exits SNAP and then re-enters the program within 4 months. Churning is a policy concern due to the financial and administrative burden incurred by both SNAP households and State agencies that administer SNAP. This study explores the circumstances of churning in SNAP by determining the rates and patterns of churn, examining the causes of caseload churn, and calculating costs of churn to both participants and administering agencies in six States.

Resource | Research | Policy Analysis
The Characteristics and Circumstances of Zero-Income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households

This study describes the characteristics, circumstances, and participation and income dynamics of zero-income SNAP households and seeks to assess whether economic and policy changes may have affected this growth.

Resource | Research | General/Other
Nutrition Assistance In Farmers Markets: Understanding the Shopping Patterns of SNAP Participants

This study was undertaken to understand why some SNAP participants shop at farmers markets and others in the same geographic area do not.  Results suggest that SNAP participants buy most of their fresh fruits and vegetables at farmers markets.  Of those who shop at farmers markets, overall value including quality and price are major reasons for shopping at markets.  Of those who do not, reasons for not shopping at farmers markets centered on convenience.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations
Healthy Incentives Pilot Final Evaluation Report

The Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP) tested a way of making fruits and vegetables more affordable for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assis­tance Program (SNAP). Under HIP, SNAP partici­pants received a financial incentive for purchasing fruits and vegetables. The HIP evaluation used a random assignment research design. Specifically, 7,500 Hampden County SNAP households were randomly selected to partic­ipate in HIP, while the remaining 47,595 households continued to receive SNAP benefits as usual. The final evaluation report presents findings on the impacts of HIP on fruit and vegetable consumption and spending, the processes involved in implementation and operating HIP, impacts on stakeholders, and the costs associated with the pilot.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Trends in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates: Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2012

This report is the latest in a series of annual reports presenting information on national participation rates among people eligible for program benefits.  In 2012, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program served 83 percent of all eligible individuals, and the program provided 96 percent of the benefits that all eligible individuals could receive.

Resource | Research | Promoting Healthy Eating
Approaches for Promoting Healthy Food Purchases by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

This study developed innovative approaches to using nutrition labeling systems to incentivize healthy food choices by SNAP participants in retail settings. The approaches consider opportunities for using Front of Package and shelf labeling systems across all food categories and retail settings.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Reaching the Underserved Elderly and Working Poor in SNAP: Evaluation Findings from the Fiscal Year 2009 Pilots

In 2009, Congress authorized and funded pilot projects to test approaches to facilitate access to SNAP among two underserved populations:  the elderly and the working poor. The Michigan and Pennsylvania pilots successfully increased access to SNAP among the elderly. No significant impacts on access were found in the other four States.