Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Direct Certification in the National School Lunch Program Report to Congress: State Implementation Progress, School Year 2015-2016 and 2016-2017

This report responds to the requirement of Public Law 110-246 to assess the effectiveness of State and local efforts to directly certify children for free school meals. Direct certification is a process conducted by the States and by local educational agencies (LEAs) to certify eligible children for free meals without the need for household applications. The 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act required LEAs to establish systems to directly certify children from households that receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits by school year (SY) 2008-2009. This report presents information on the outcomes of direct certification for SY 2015-2016 and SY 2016-2017.

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost
WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2016 Food Package Report

The biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Report describes a census of all participants in WIC. The most recent report (PC 2016) reflects State management information systems data from April 2016, and this Food Package Report is a supplemental analysis of that data. While PC 2016 summarizes participant characteristics, this report summarizes the food packages, or prescriptions, that State agencies (SAs) issued to these participants.

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost
WIC Food Package Cost Report, Fiscal Year 2014

This report supplements FNS administrative data on food package costs by estimating the average monthly food costs for each WIC participant category and food package type. It also estimates total pre- and post-rebate dollars spent on 17 major categories of WIC-eligible foods in FY 2014. This report is an update to the previous WIC Food Package Cost Report for FY 2010.

Resource | Research
WIC Nutrition Education Study: Phase II Final Report

Phase II was a methodological study, conducted in six sites during 2015–2016, to test an approach to determine its feasibility for a national evaluation.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations
WIC Medicaid II Feasibility Study: Final Report

The USDA Food and Nutrition Service’s (FNS) 1990 WIC Medicaid Study I (WM-I) found that prenatal WIC participation was associated with improved birth outcomes and savings in Medicaid costs. A 2003 study by Buescher, et al., found that WIC participation during childhood was associated with increased health care utilization and Medicaid costs, and concluded that WIC enhanced children’s linkages to the health care system.

Resource | History
A Short History of SNAP

939 – The First Food Stamp Program

Resource | Data
WIC Racial-Ethnic Group Enrollment Data 2002

Enrollment for the WIC Program in April 2002 totaled 8,016,916. Of this total, Hispanics accounted for 3,051,969 (38%), Whites 2,874,155 (36%), Blacks 1,621,914 (20%), Asian/Pacific Islanders 277,965 (4%), American Indian/Alaska Native 114,566 (1%).

Resource | Data
WIC Racial-Ethnic Group Enrollment Data 2004

Enrollment for the WIC Program in April 2004 totaled 8,586,487. Of this total, Hispanics accounted for 3,362,959 (39%), Whites 2,987,147 (35%), Blacks 1,715,294 (20%), Asian/Pacific Islanders 261,342 (3%), American Indian/Alaska Native 133,191 (2%).

Resource | Data
WIC Racial-Ethnic Group Enrollment Data 2006

Enrollment for the WIC Program in April 2006 totaled 8,772,216. Of this total, Whites accounted for 4,849,557 (55.28%), Blacks 1,715,433 (19.56%), American Indian 1,344,422 (15.33%), Multiple Race 256,244 (2.92%), Asian 255,629 (2.91%), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 68,598 (.78%).

Resource | Data
WIC Racial-Ethnic Group Enrollment Data 2008

Enrollment for the WIC Program in April 2008 totaled 9,537,897. Of this total, Whites accounted for 5,753,002 (60.30%), Blacks 1,868,090 (19.58%), American Indian 1,090,454 (11.43%),  Multiple Race 346,819 (3.64%), Asian 256,506 (2.67%),  Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 79,738 (.84%).